Pneumocystis is an unusual opportunistic fungus which causes a severe and—if untreated—lethal pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia, or PCP) in immunocompromised humans and mammals.

Two major difficulties have hampered the study of PCP. First, no reliable in vitro system for the cultivation of Pneumocystis exists, and although animal models are widely used, considerable genetic difference between human Pneumocystis (Pneumocystis jiroveci) and Pneu-mocystis spp. infecting other mammalian species exists. Second, live organisms have never been detected outside its hosts, and clinical samples containing large quantities of P. jiroveci organisms are not easily obtained. As a consequence, the study of the organism and the infection has relied greatly on molecular and immunological approaches. These have led to the identification of clinical relevant antigens and enzymes, and have enabled typing. The latter is of outmost importance in elucidating the epidemiology of human pneumocystosis.

The standard method for diagnosis of PCP is microscopical examination of invasive lower respiratory tract specimens. Molecular detection systems have the potential to provide a higher degree of sensitivity than microscopy. Therefore PCR methods have been applied to clinical specimens for diagnosing PCP, and oral wash examination by PCR may be an alternative as a noninvasive diagnostic test.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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