A modern-day technique has enabled tens of thousands of genes to be printed on a single microscope slide—high-density microarrays. The development of these arrays has boosted genomics research, exploiting the huge amount of data made available by the human genome project because all known genes could now be included. Complete RNA expression profiles can be acquired from tissue samples as small as those obtained by laser dissection microscopy using RNA amplification. Expression profiles can be clustered and related to disease status. From these clusters, a molecular profile or ''signature'' of the disease can be extracted. Thus research can take full advantage of developments in microarray technique to find diagnostic and prognostic profiles for various diseases. A major challenge is to implement these signatures as diagnostic or prognostic tools in the clinic.

Despite the availability of a number of commercial platforms, many institutes have raised core facilities that provide them with homemade microarrays to minimize cost and to maximize flexibility. Because all these facilities use their own combination of probes, slides, printing and scanning equipment, hybridization conditions, and sample preparation, this gives rise to a huge variability in quality. Because regulatory federal and state agencies will allow only excellent quality microarrays to be used for diagnostics, many of today's platforms will not pass.

Many statistical ''tricks'' are being applied to correct for artifacts in the results of microarray experiments. In this review, we will indicate ways to solve these artifacts by techniques rather than by statistics. We will pinpoint essential steps to raise the quality of microarrays produced in core facilities to the perfection required for diagnostics or prognostics.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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