Cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors/medullo-blastomas (MBs) are the most common malignant brain tumors of childhood. Because of the high risk of lepto-meningeal dissemination, standard postoperative treatment for MB includes craniospinal radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such treatment causes long-term morbidity including endocrine and growth disturbances, as well as neurocognitive dysfunction, which is particularly severe in young children. Over the last years, oncogene MYC has been identified as one of the most important biological prognostic factors in MB. Assessment of MYC mRNA levels by quantitative RT-PCR is simple, rapid, and reproducible. It is therefore suitable for routine quantification of MYC mRNA expression in MB and will be a powerful tool in large prospective cooperative group trials. The goal of these important biological studies will be to evaluate whether MYC mRNA expression can be incorporated in future risk-classification systems for clinical use.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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