For hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is not cultivable in vitro, serological assays permit an accurate diagnosis and follow-up of acute or chronic infection.

Qualitative serological assays for the detection of HBV antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) and antibodies (anti-HBs, total and IgM anti-HBc, and anti-HBe) are also widely available and standardized.1-1-1

While active HBV infection is defined by the presence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in plasma, the secretory version of HBV core protein, HBeAg, serves as a marker for viral replication and can easily be detected by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). However, the absence of HBeAg in serum or plasma does not exclude viral replication.1-2,3-1 Reasons may be the relatively low sensitivity of current HBeAg tests or mutations in the precore region of the HBV core gene.[4] Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the detection of HBeAg and the HBV DNA level.[3]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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