Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technology has provided rapid and comprehensive approaches for elucidating quantitative gene expression patterns that do not depend on a priori knowledge of gene sequence or transcript information. The SAGE method is based on the isolation of unique short sequence tags (9-21 bp long) from individual transcripts and their serial concatenation (linking) into long deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules, thereby overcoming the problem of transcript redundancy and allowing the method to be performed without subtraction or normalization. Sequencing of concatemer clones in parallel reveals individual tags and allows for the identification of up to ~ 30 tag sequences in each reaction. Matching tags to genome sequences identifies the gene corresponding to each tag, and reveals novel internal exons and uncharacterized genes. Furthermore, the number of times a particular tag is observed provides a quantitative measure of transcript abundance in the ribonucleic acid (RNA) population.

The SAGE protocol can be used for studying any kind of biological phenomenon resulting from changes in cellular transcription. The technology not only provides a global gene expression profile of a particular type of cell or tissue in any organism, but also identifies a set of specific genes responsible for function by comparing the profiles obtained from a pair of cells kept at different circumstances.[2]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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