The gram-negative coccobacillus Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid in humans. Chancroid is a genital ulcer disease (GUD) that is highly prevalent in underdeveloped countries and in some urban areas of developed countries. It is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that had an estimated global incidence of 7 million cases in 1997. As is the case with other GUDs, chancroid facilitates HIV-1 transmission. Naturally occurring chancroid is much more prevalent in men than in women and circumcision is known to greatly reduce the incidence. Chancroid manifests itself as a single painful ulcer after infection of damaged skin. Symptomatic diagnosis is complicated because the clinical picture is similar to GUD caused by other pathogens such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Treponema pallidum (syphilis). H. ducreyi is renowned for its problematic detection by culture. Experienced microbiologists are needed and these are mostly lacking where chancroid is highly prevalent. Microscopic diagnosis can only be performed in well-equipped laboratories and the same problem is recognized for amplification methods such as PCR. Nevertheless PCR provides the most sensitive diagnosis of chancroid and should be regarded as the gold standard. Development of new, easy-to-use serological assays is needed for on-site specific diagnosis.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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