Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are biallelic single-base changes with a minor-allele frequency of at least 1%. Genotyping of SNPs has become of increasing importance to elucidate the interindividual differences in populations and to investigate the genetic foundations of major common diseases.

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool for the analysis of biomolecules in the past decades. Besides its earlier focus nearly entirely on peptide and protein analysis, MALDI-TOF MS is more widely used today for the investigation of queries related to the structure and function of genes and genomes.

absorbs laser energy and evaporates into the vacuum of the mass spectrometer. The analyte molecules are co-desorbed with the matrix and ionized by proton transfer. Molecules are accelerated in an electric field and their flight time is measured following their impact on a secondary electron multiplier. The advantages for using MALDI-TOF for the analysis of DNA molecules are that no surrogates (e.g., labels) are detected but an intrinsic property of the analyte molecule (the molecular mass) is used for the identification. The analysis time is in the range of seconds for any given assay. The data analysis is completely automated and straightforward.

For more details on the principles and applications of MALDI-TOF MS to proteomics the reader is referred to the respective chapters in this encyclopedia.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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