During the last decade, the scientific community has undergone a technology shift in studying nucleic acids in biological samples. With the development of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it became possible to quantify the amount of specific nucleic acids target in virtually any biological sample with unprecedented accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Real-time PCR combines the exponential amplification of the PCR with optical detection using fluorescent dyes or fluorescent probes, which makes it possible to measure the amount of product after each cycle of the reaction. From this information, the initial amount of template can be determined. During the last years, real-time PCR has been used in a variety of applications such as human[1] and veterinary[2] diagnostics; detection of pathogens in food,[3] water,[4] and soil;[5] and gene expression studies.1-6-1 To meet the various demands for real-time PCR instruments and the large variety of applications, several instrument platforms have been developed, many with specific properties. A real-time PCR instrument must have certain components to perform its intended function. The sample must be contained in a container that can be heated and cooled rather rapidly. An optical unit that illuminates the sample and records the emitted fluorescence is also required. In this article, we will briefly describe the variety of different components used in the most common real-time PCR machines.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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