Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) and type 2 (MEN 2) are genetically and clinically distinct hereditary endocrinopathy syndromes with classical characteristics of early age of cancer onset, which is frequently bilateral or multifocal, multiple primary tumors, vertical transmission through either parent, frequent association with distinguished phenotypic stigmata, and occasional special pathological features. MEN 1-associated tumors, affecting mainly the parathyroid glands, the pancreatic-islet cells, and the anterior pituitary gland, are due to inactivation of the MEN 1 tumor suppressor gene located in 11q13, with no genotype-phenotype correlation. MEN 2-associated tumors, affecting mainly the thyroid parafollicular C cells, the parathyroid glands, and the adrenal medulla, are due to oncogenic point mutations of the RET proto-oncogene located in 10q11.2. There is a significant genotype-phenotype correlation in MEN 2 phenotypic variants, which has led to development of guidelines for the timing and extent of prophylactic surgery.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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