More than 40 million people worldwide have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There are 14,000 new infections every day and approximately 10,000 people die of AIDS every day. HIV-1 and HIV-2 are retroviruses and HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of HIV infections worldwide but HIV-2 predominates in parts of West Africa and has been detected in Europe, Asia, and North America.

The molecular diagnosis of HIV involves two major strategies. Firstly, the monitoring of plasma HIV RNA viral load in conjunction with CD4 T-lymphocyte cell numbers as surrogate markers for disease progression and, secondly, the detection of specific point mutations in the HIV-1 pol gene that confer resistance to specific anti-retroviral drugs. More recently, mutations in gag which alter the p6/p1 splice site, in env which confer resistance to the fusion inhibitors, and in integrase which confer resistance to integrase inhibitors have also become important. HIV-1 RNA viral load assays have revolutionized patient management. Quantitative measures of HIV-1 RNA have been used in the study of HIV-1 viral dynamics and as a marker for clinical endpoints in studies of new treatment regimens.[1] The dynamics of HIV-1 replication using HIV-1 show that the virus is very active during the long clinically asymptomatic stage of the disease.[2] There is a significant relationship between HIV RNA viral load in plasma and progression to AIDS. Patients with low viral load progress to AIDS at a slower rate than those with a high viral load.[3] It has become standard practice to monitor HIV-1 RNA viral load in order to assess the effectiveness of treatment and the likelihood of clinical progression.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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