Introduction

Cowden syndrome (CS, OMIM#158350) can be grouped along with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRR, OMIM #153480), Peutz Jeghers syndrome (PJS, OMIM #175200), and juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS, OMIM# 174900) as one of the autosomal dominant hamartoma syndromes. The estimated incidence of CS is >1:200,000.[1] It is characterized by the appearance of hamartomas (benign developmentally disorganized tumor-like tissue overgrowths) in various organs as well as an increased risk of developing malignancies.

PTEN (Phosphatase and TENsin homolog mutated on chromosome TEN; location 10q23.3) was identified in 1997 and has alternatively been named MMAC1 or TEP1.[2] PTEN encodes a dual specificity phosphatase with homology to the cytoskeletal proteins tensin and auxillin. Using the criteria set by the International Cowden Syndrome Consortium[3] up to 80% of individuals with CS have been shown to have a germline PTEN mutation.[4] Genetic scanning in at-risk or symptomatic individuals is available for this syndrome.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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