Introduction

Electrophoresis continues to be widely used for diagnostic applications in molecular genetics, although many efforts are being made to develop liquid-phase and closed-tube systems. Throughput requirements are increasing in proportion to the number of diagnostically relevant genes, mutations, and polymorphic variants known. Many tests are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based. The well-known industry-standard 96-well microplate has evolved to form the basis of many high-throughput approaches in the biosciences over the past 30 years and such 96 (and 384)-well formats are now frequently used for PCR. However, microplates are only permissive of liquid-phase reactions or solid-phase (binding) separations, whereas electrophoresis can derive information about parameters such as size, shape, and charge of molecular moieties as well as acting as a highly resolving separation approach for complex mixtures. In 1994, we described an electropho-resis system, microplate array diagonal gel electrophoresis (MADGE), which enables the simple conjunction of polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis in an open-faced 96-well microplate-compatible format. This permits checking of PCRs, allele-specific PCRs, and enzyme digests of PCRs. We have since developed 192-, 384-, and 768-well versions, ''dry'' formats, high-resolution formats for microsatellite analysis (''stretchMADGE''), and a thermal ramp (''meltMADGE'') approach for scanning for unknown mutations. Analysis software is also available. These developments are outlined below. Protocols and further links are available on our laboratory web server (Southampton Genetic Epidemiology Laboratories—http://www.sgel.humgen. soton.ac.uk).

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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