Introduction

Lymphatic filariasis is a significant health problem in many developing countries. Globally, 1.1 billion people live in known endemic areas and about one-fourth of them may be infected. Lymphatic filariasis is the second leading cause of permanent and long-term disability and undermines the social and economic welfare of the affected people and communities. The World Health Organization launched a global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem by the year 2020. Human lymphatic filariasis is mainly caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. Bancroftian filariasis, W. bancrofti, is responsible for 90% of lymphatic filariasis and widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. B. malayi infection is endemic in Asia such as China, Korea, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Sri Lanka. B. timori infection occurs in Indonesia (islands of Alor, Flores, and Timor).[1]

The microfilariae of W. bancrofti were first described by Demarquay in 1863 and the adult worms were first described in 1877 by Cobbold in Australia and by Lewis in India. In 1878, Manson completed the description of the life cycle by showing that mosquitoes acted as intermediate hosts for the parasite.[2] It has been speculated that W. bancrofti originated from Southeast Asia, where its closest known relative, Wuchereria kalimantani, parasitizes the Indonesian leaf monkey. From there, it was presumably carried by the earliest migrants to the islands of the South Pacific, perhaps as early as 2000 BC. Another migration from the same area of Southeast Asia, known to have settled in Madagascar sometime before 500 ad, may have brought filariasis to that island and subsequently to the mainland of Africa. Filariasis is known to have spread throughout Central Africa and into Arabia by the 14th or 15th century (with no evidence of its presence in Egypt in pharaonic times) and to have been imported to the New World via the slave trade in the 17th and 18th centuries. It was introduced into northeastern Australia during the 19th century, but has since been eradicated.1-3-1

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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