The differential susceptibility or resistance to many human diseases as well as the individual response to medications and environmental, nutritional, or pathogenic stimuli are based on the genetic diversity of the human population. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are single nucleotide positions in genomic DNA that show natural variation, occur on average once at every 5001000 nucleotides in the human genome, and account for more than 90% of all human sequence variability. Although they have the potential to be tetra-allelic, almost all SNPs are bi-allelic. SNPs revolutionize human molecular genetics because they represent a dense panel of genetic markers distributed across the entire genome. Currently, SNP genotyping is employed in a variety of application areas including population dynamics and evolution, identification of disease-related genes, for the optimization of new drug development, as well as for forensic and diagnostic genetic testing. In addition, SNP genotyping holds great promise for the individualization of clinical diagnostics and therapeutics (i.e., the tailoring of drugs and dose regimens to individual patients) in the future.
This report gives an introduction into the GALIOS™ Genotyping System, a novel technology which provides homogeneous, rapid, and cost-efficient analysis of SNPs and mutations in genomic DNA. The accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, robustness, and reproducibility of GALIOS™ for diagnostic genotyping are illustrated and its potential for miniaturized high-throughput genotyping is discussed.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.