Introduction

In 1987, Augenlicht et al. published the first paper on arrays and the use of gene expression profiles in typing cancers.[1] Almost two decades later, microarrays have been used as a tool in defining expression profiles in diseases as well as in compound discovery and development. Previous reviews have discussed the history and the application of microarrays.[2,3] This paper will cover printing microarrays, including the variety of printing surfaces, the immobilization techniques, the types of molecules printed, and the printing process itself. Topics which will not be covered will be other methods used in the microarray process: sample preparation, array hybridization, array scanning, image analysis and data analysis, and mining.

Microarrays are described as arrays of macromolecules (including proteins), tissue slices, cells, chemicals, or nanomaterials printed on a surface to mimic a ''micro'' environment. Typically, the materials are printed in hundreds or thousands covering 1-2 cm2 of surface area. The advantage is that this large number of materials can be screened all at once. An investigator can sometimes repeat in one experiment what took other investigators years to evaluate. In addition, microarrays lend themselves well to producing data which allow the investigator to piece together a ''systems'' answer to the hypothesis. Many mathematical modeling algorithms and methods are now being used to try to ''reverse engineer'' a biological system or remap what pathways are involved based on the expression profiles obtained from microarrays.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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