Single cell gel electrophoresis allows detection of DNA breaks based on the electrophoretic migration of DNA from single nuclei embedded in agarose. The assay is commonly known as the ''comet'' assay because of the typical shape of the DNA fragments migrated out of the nucleus, resembling the tail of a comet when they are viewed through a microscope. The idea of electrophores-ing single nuclei by embedding cell suspensions in thin agarose layers on microscope slides was originally developed for detection of radiation-induced DNA damage. A few years later, a modification of the original version of the method was introduced, consisting in conducting the electrophoresis after a DNA unwinding step in alkaline conditions, which greatly improved detection of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and also allowed detection of alkali-labile sites (ALS). Since then, the comet assay has gained increasing popularity, and today it is one of the most widely used methods in genetic toxicology, particularly in the alkaline version, which encompasses detection of a broader spectrum of DNA lesions. In addition to strand breaks, the comet assay can also be used for cross-link detection. The reasons for its popularity are also the small amount of cells/tissue required, high sensitivity, low cost, relative rapidity, and simplicity.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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