Introduction

The genus Treponema includes pathogenic and saprophytic spirochetes. Four of the treponemes are human pathogens, and three of these are Treponema pallidum subspecies: subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) causes venereal syphilis; subspecies pertenue (Treponema perte-nue) causes yaws; and subspecies endemicum (Treponema endemicum) causes endemic syphilis, or bejel. The three subspecies of T. pallidum, with identical morphologies and similar antigenic properties and genomic structures, cannot be distinguished based on current serologic or genetic methods. The diseases are categorized according to their clinical presentations and the geographic distributions. Treponema carateum, the causative agent of pinta, remains classified as a separate species because of insufficient genetic information to determine whether it too is a subspecies of T. pallidum. Current efforts to control these diseases are focused on combining molecular and serologic methods with epidemiological surveillance and treatment.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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