Introduction

Chromosome abnormalities are amazingly common in humans, leading to infertility, pregnancy loss, and birth of children with mental and physical handicaps. Most chromosome abnormalities have their origin during meiosis; thus information on the causes of chromosome abnormalities and factors affecting their frequency is best studied in human gametes. During the past two decades, there has been an explosion of information on the chromosome complement of human spermatozoa. This has been mediated by the advent of two techniques: human sperm karyotyping using the hamster oocyte system and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Rudak et al.[1] first reported the use of hamster ova to reactivate human sperm, allowing the analysis of pronuclear chromosomes. Other laboratories followed with the first publications on the frequency and type of chromosome abnormalities in human sperm.[2-5] Human sperm karyotyping, using the hamster system, provides detailed information on each individual chromosome, permitting analysis of both numerical and structural abnormalities. However, there are significant disadvantages: sperm cells must be capable of fertilizing a hamster oocyte; the technique is very difficult, time-consuming, and expensive; and data yield is small. In fact, only 12 laboratories worldwide have had success with this technique despite many efforts. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with chromosome-specific DNA probes provides a faster, cheaper, and easier alternative for detecting numerical abnormalities (aneuploidy) in human sperm. In addition, sperm cells with defects in fertilization ability and/or motility can be assessed using FISH analysis. This review will outline some of the studies that have been performed on human sperm using FISH analysis.

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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