Introduction

Whipple's disease (WD) is a good example of progress resulting from the introduction and development of molecular genetic techniques. In 2003 Bentley et al. and Raoult et al. sequenced and published the full genome of the causative bacterium Tropheryma whipplei which allowed to ascertain specific targets for the detection of the bacterium in the host and the environment.

The first case report of a patient suffering from diarrhea, polyarthritis, and bronchitis was by G.H. Whipple in 1907. He described the disease as a new entity and it was known since as ''intestinal lipodystrophy,'' later on as Whipple's disease.[1] Although a systemic disease was considered, the underlying agent was unknown for many years. For a long time the diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and later on histological investigations: periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positivity in the affected tissue has been considered as a pathognomonic sign. In 1960, a bacterium was identified in the affected tissue using electron microscopy.[2] The start of genetic techniques in the disease was the sequencing of 16S rRNA in 1991, which allowed to determine the phylogenetic position as an actinomycete,[3] and the bacterium was named after its culture T. whipplei.[4]

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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