The Human Genome Project (HGP), a multibillion, multinational endeavor to sequence the entire human genome, as well as the genomes of model organisms, was started in 1990, and the completion was announced in 2000. In February 2001, the first draft of the human genome sequence was published. In 2003, the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the DNA double helix, a high-quality version of the human genome sequence became available. The HGP-driven research is leading to a rethinking of genetics and the impact of genes on human health. This will have a profound influence on clinical practice.

Molecular genetics is a relatively new entry into pathology. It was only in 1978 that the first prenatal diagnosis was made with this approach. Today, the DNA-based test has become an integral component of clinical genetics. As knowledge gained from the HGP expands our understanding of human genetic disorders and genetic components of common complex diseases, the scope for DNA testing increases. Current interest in DNA diagnostics predominantly focuses on single-gene disorders. The challenging developments ahead are in the fields of DNA diagnostics involving somatic cell (acquired) disorders for which there is a genetic predisposition, and multifactorial disorders that involve genetic susceptibility interacting with the environment.

The HGP has brought about another change, with the traditional concept of genetics expanding into genomics. With the term ''genetics,'' the focus was on a single disorder. In this situation, a mutation in the DNA allowed a diagnosis to be made, and perhaps some understanding of pathogenesis was gained. In contrast, genomics has wider ramifications, and it has been used to refer to all genes in the genome rather than individual ones, including their function, sequence, and interactions with the environment.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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