Since the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was described in 1985 many variations of the initial technique have been developed to improve the sensitivity, specificity, cost-effectiveness, and time consumed. The sensitivity rates are crucial in diagnostic PCR systems, especially those involving labile or not abundant microorganisms in clinical specimens. One of the methods currently employed to increase sensitivity and specificity is the nested PCR (nPCR). This technique consists in the utilization of two consecutive PCRs, each containing a different pair of oligonucleotides. Paradoxically, the high sensitivity of the method often results in a handicap when reagent or sample contamination is present. On the other hand, multiplex PCR approach has the potential to produce considerable savings of time and effort within the laboratory without compromising test utility. Although the technique has been shown to be a valuable method for the identification of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and/or parasites, it is really useful for the screening of clinical samples involved in syndromes and infections such as acute respiratory tract infections, genital infections, and meningitis and encephalitis. Multiplex and nested PCR have experienced a wide development overall in the field of infectious diseases caused by viruses.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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