Introduction

Bloodstream infections have become an important ''disease'' in the industrialized world and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Each year, an estimated quarter million hospital-acquired bloodstream infections and a similar number of community-acquired bloodstream infections occur in the United States alone. The ''disease'' has further intensified due to the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and an increasing number of fungemia caused by non-Candida albicans yeasts—all associated with increased costs and mortality.

Today, the diagnosis of bloodstream infections is based on Gram staining of positive blood culture bottles; however, the final identification and susceptibility results are not available until 1-3 days later. Therefore, meanwhile, patients are often treated empirically, and delayed laboratory results have little impact on patient therapy, leading to an inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) is a novel in vitro diagnostic platform, which has recently been applied for rapid and accurate diagnosis of bloodstream infections. Benefiting from the unique features of PNA probes, PNA-FISH assays enable clinical microbiology laboratories to report important information for patient therapy within a time frame not possible using current methods.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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