Protein microarrays, in the simplest sense, are immobilized protein spots on a substratum. Individual protein spots may be heterogeneous or homogeneous, and may consist of cell or phage lysates, an antibody, a nucleic acid, drug, or recombinant protein. These immobilized bait molecules are detected by probing the microarray with a signalgenerating molecule such as a tagged antibody, ligand, serum, or cell lysate. The tagging molecule generates a pattern of positive and negative spots. The signal intensity of each spot is proportional to the quantity of applied tagged molecules bound to the bait molecule. The spot pattern image is captured, analyzed, and correlated with biological information.

Protein microarrays have broad applications for discovery and quantitative analysis. Protein microarray technology may be applied to drug discovery, biomarker identification, and molecular profiling of cellular material. It is expected that the clinical utility of protein micro-arrays will depend on their ability to provide a map of known cell signaling proteins and to provide crucial information about protein posttranslational modifications. Protein microarrays help to provide a view of the disrupted cellular machinery governing disease. Identification of critical nodes, or interactions, within these networks is a potential starting point for drug development and/or design of individual therapy regimens.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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