Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are individual base positions in the genome that show natural variation in a population. They represent the most abundant form of genetic variation in humans, accounting for more than 90% of all differences between unrelated individuals. SNP patterns are likely to influence many human phenotypes; therefore large-scale association studies based on SNP genotyping are expected to help identify genes affecting complex diseases and responses to drugs or environmental chemicals. SNPs play a major role in all stages of the drug development process—from target identification to clinical trials. The analysis of SNPs may also help to tailor drugs and drug regimes to particular genotypes—the underlying principle of pharmacogenomics. Given the potential impact of SNPs on healthcare, the biotechnology industry has focused urgently on the development of high-throughput methods for SNP genotyping. All genotyping methods are a combination of distinct methods for allele discrimination and signal detection, and these methods are the subject of this article.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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