In 1807, Ferdinand Frederic Reuss observed under a microscope the migration of colloidal particles in an electric field, perhaps the first electrophoretic separation.
During the early 1970s, both agarose and polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel usage evolved to slab gel formats[1,2] much as they are still found in the laboratory today. Throughput requirements were not an issue at that time. Indeed, slabs were an advance from tube gels. For both tubes and modern capillaries, each ''lane'' is separate from any other and cross-referencing requires reliance on either an external frame of reference (e.g., time of elution) or an internal frame (e.g., coelectrophoresed mobility standards). Slabs give convenient alignment of tracks. Microplate array diagonal gel electrophoresis, in the process of achieving microplate compatibility, uses 96 (higher density in newer formats)-track origins (wells) with 8 x 12 array locations at the 9-mm pitch identical with microplates devised 30 years ago by Dynatech and now a highly established industry standard for liquidphase operations.
Was this article helpful?
The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.