Microsatellite Markers

A virtually untapped area for studying diversity in Echinococcus is the use of microsatellite DNA. Some microsatellite markers are available for E. multilocularis, following the earlier studies of Bretagne et al.[7] who were able to use microsatellite DNA to divide isolates of E. multilocularis into three groups: European, North American (Montana), and Japanese. More recently, Nakao et al.[5] isolated two microsatellite loci that were used to demonstrate population-level polymorphisms in E. multilocularis adult worms derived from wild red foxes collected from a limited geographical area of Hokkaido, Japan. The provision of microsatellite markers for E. granulosus and additional microsatellites from E. multilocularis will provide exquisitely sensitive tools for studying the population genetics and transmission biology of Echinococcus species.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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