Molecular Methods For Mve Surveillance

Traditionally, flavivirus surveillance has been carried out by mosquito trapping using carbon dioxide light traps, transport of the trapped mosquitoes to a central laboratory on dry ice, and then speciating, counting, and processing of mosquitoes for virus isolation. This produces excellent information about vector species, infection rates, and the types of viruses they carry[16] provided it is practical to perform this at a time when MVE is likely to be active. Unfortunately, MVE activity occurs over large and sparsely populated areas of Australia, and peak activity occurs during the wet season when flooding may restrict access to many areas. This has meant that mosquito trapping for virus isolation is often not achievable during periods of high virus activity. Sentinel chicken surveillance, using fortnightly or monthly bleeds to check for seroconversion, has proven to be valuable in monitoring MVEV activity within endemic and epidemic areas.[15] However, it does not provide data about virus strains and is not useful for some other flaviviruses of interest such as JEV and dengue virus. It has been shown that a seminested RT-PCR was able to reliably detect JEV in dead mosquito pools,[25] and this is likely also to be suitable for MVEV. This shows considerable promise as a robust surveillance technique that can detect multiple flaviviruses quickly, using dried mosquitoes that can be sent by routine transport mechanisms or by post.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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