Molecular Testing

PCR technology can quantify extremely low levels of rare (usually 1% or less) infected T-cells. The infectious status in HTLV-1 indicates that the provirus DNA sequence is integrated within the host genome from infected T-cells, so the proviral load by real-time PCR can disclose viral pathologies related to the disorders, including cell burden of the infected cells.[4,7] The technology to detect PCR products in real time has been available for more than about 7 years. Now, there are two main real-time PCR routine methods for quantitative detection of HTLV-1 proviral load: the TaqMan and Perkin-Elmer/Applied Biosystems Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems, Foster, CA, USA) and the LightCycler Technology (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). Here, we review the performance of quantitative HTLV-1 provirus detection by real-time PCR, including our experiences using the LightCycler Technology with specific probes.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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