Morphology Taxonomy And Genomic Organization

Orthopox viruses are oval, brick-shaped particles with geometrically corrugated outer surface. The particles' sizes range from 220 to 450 nm in length and 140 to 260 nm in width. The outer envelope consists of a lipoprotein layer embedding surface tubules and enclosing a biconcave core. The core contains the viral DNA and core fibrils, and is surrounded by the core envelope and a tightly arranged layer of rod-shaped structures known as the palisade layer. Between the palisade layer and the outer envelope exist two oval masses known as the lateral bodies.

Genus Orthopoxvirus is one of the 11 known genera in the viral family Poxviridae, which comprises two subfamilies: Chordopoxvirina and Entomopoxvirinae. Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae contains eight genera: Avipoxvirus, Capripoxvirus, Leporipoxvirus, Mollusci-poxvirus, Orthopoxvirus, Parapoxvirus, Suipoxvirus, and Yatapoxvirus, and at least 36 species that are associated with vertebrates. Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae contains three genera: Entomopoxvirus A, B, and C, and 25 species that are associated with insects.

Genus Orthopoxvirus contains 11 known species: buffalopox, camelpox, cowpox, ectromelia, monkeypox, rabbitpox, raccoonpox, taterapox, Vaccinia, Variola, and volepox viruses and two tentative species: skunkpox and Uasin Gishu viruses.

Orthopox viruses contain double-stranded DNA genomes whose 5' and 3' ends are closed, forming terminal loops. The genomes of camelpox, cowpox, ectro-melia, monkeypox, Vaccinia, and Variola viruses have been sequenced and are published in GenBank. The genome size of these viruses varies from 177,923 bp (Vaccinia Ankara) to 224,499 bp (cowpox Brighton). The genome size of camelpox Kazakhstan, ectromelia Moscow, monkeypox Zaire-1996, and Variola Bangladesh-1975 viruses are 205,719, 209,771, 196,858, and 186,103 bp, respectively. The 5' and 3' termini contain inverted terminal repeats (ITR) whose sizes vary considerably in different species. The size of ITR in camelpox, cowpox, ectromelia, monkeypox, Vaccinia, and Variola viruses are 7736, 9710, 9413, 6378, 12,068, and 725 bp, respectively. The number of genes also varies in different species. The number of genes of camelpox, cowpox, ectromelia, monkeypox, Vaccinia, and Variola genomes are 212, 234, 176, 193, 266, and 191, respectively.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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