The MYC (c-myc) protooncogene, a member of a family of closely related genes that includes MYCN and MYCL, encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein involved in the transcription of genes central to regulating the cell cycle, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, embryonic development, and differentiation.1-1,2-1 MYC proteins form heterodimers with Max, another helix-loop-helix leucine zipper protein. MYC/Max heterodimers bind to specific DNA sequences located in the transcriptional control region of target genes and alter the transcription of these target genes by transactivation or transrepression.
MYC expression is normally tightly regulated throughout the cell cycle, but may become deregulated or activated, thus contributing to malignant transformation.1-3-1 Dysregulation of MYC has been implicated in the patho-genesis of a variety of human neoplasms. One important mechanism of MYC dysregulation is gene amplification. In childhood neuroblastoma, amplification of MYCN, a MYC family member, is found to occur in about 25% of primary tumors and is strongly associated with advanced-stage disease, rapid tumor progression, and poor
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.