Microfluidic Chips for Nanoliter Volumes

Nanoliter implies extreme reduction in quantity of fluid analyte in a microchip. The use of the word ''nano'' in nanoliter (nL) is in a different dimension than in nano-particle, which is in nanometer (nm) scale. Diagnostic companies with ''nano'' in their name may have other technologies. For example, Nanolytics Inc. with lab-on-chip based on nanoliter microfluidics and Nanogen with NanoChip based on microelectronics.

Chemical compounds within individual nanoliter droplets of glycerol were microarrayed on to glass slides at 400 spots/cm2 in another technique.[4] Using aerosol deposition, subsequent reagents and water were metered

The NanoPro™ System (BioForce Nanosciences, Inc.)

consists of three separate components:

1. The NanoArrayer™ embodies proprietary instrumentation and methods for creating a broad spectrum of NanoArrayTM-based biological tests. This device places molecules at defined locations on a surface with nanometer spatial resolution. The arrays of molecules (NanoArrays™, see below) are unique to BioForce and can only be created with a NanoArrayerTM.

2. NanoArrays™ are ultraminiaturized biological tests with applications in many areas. The company's first NanoArrayTM products are presently being evaluated for commercial utilization by potential users and are targeted toward the proteomics/genomics and diagnostics markets. These products include a custom nucleic acid NanoArray™ for RNA expression profiling as well as virus detection NanoArray™ called the ViriChip™. NanoArray™ chips are for protein expression profiling and immunodiagnostics. 3. The NanoReader™ is a customized AFM optimized for reading NanoArray™ chips. Using the AFM as a readout method optimizes analysis, including no requirement for secondary reporter systems (no fluorescence, radioactivity, or enzyme-linked detection), reductions in materials used (several thousand molecules per test), and increased sensitivity (ultimately single molecule detection).

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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