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Microfluidic Chips for Nanoliter Volumes

Nanoliter implies extreme reduction in quantity of fluid analyte in a microchip. The use of the word ''nano'' in nanoliter (nL) is in a different dimension than in nano-particle, which is in nanometer (nm) scale. Diagnostic companies with ''nano'' in their name may have other technologies. For example, Nanolytics Inc. with lab-on-chip based on nanoliter microfluidics and Nanogen with NanoChip based on microelectronics.

Chemical compounds within individual nanoliter droplets of glycerol were microarrayed on to glass slides at 400 spots/cm2 in another technique.[4] Using aerosol deposition, subsequent reagents and water were metered

The NanoPro™ System (BioForce Nanosciences, Inc.)

consists of three separate components:

1. The NanoArrayer™ embodies proprietary instrumentation and methods for creating a broad spectrum of NanoArrayTM-based biological tests. This device places molecules at defined locations on a surface with nanometer spatial resolution. The arrays of molecules (NanoArrays™, see below) are unique to BioForce and can only be created with a NanoArrayerTM.

2. NanoArrays™ are ultraminiaturized biological tests with applications in many areas. The company's first NanoArrayTM products are presently being evaluated for commercial utilization by potential users and are targeted toward the proteomics/genomics and diagnostics markets. These products include a custom nucleic acid NanoArray™ for RNA expression profiling as well as virus detection NanoArray™ called the ViriChip™. NanoArray™ chips are for protein expression profiling and immunodiagnostics. 3. The NanoReader™ is a customized AFM optimized for reading NanoArray™ chips. Using the AFM as a readout method optimizes analysis, including no requirement for secondary reporter systems (no fluorescence, radioactivity, or enzyme-linked detection), reductions in materials used (several thousand molecules per test), and increased sensitivity (ultimately single molecule detection).

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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