Nanotechnology on a chip is a new paradigm for total chemical analysis systems. The ability to make chemical and biological information much cheaper and easier to obtain is expected to fundamentally change healthcare, food safety, and law enforcement. Lab-on-a-chip technology involves micrototal analysis systems that are distinguished from simple sensors because they conduct a complete analysis; a raw mixture of chemicals goes in and an answer comes out. Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM, USA) is developing a handheld lab-on-a-chip that will analyze for airborne chemical warfare agents and liquid-based explosives agents. This development project brings together an interdisciplinary team with areas of expertise including microfabrication, chemical sensing, microfluidics, and bioinformatics. Although nanotechnology plays an important role in current efforts, miniaturized versions of conventional architecture and components such as valves, pipes, pumps, separation columns are patterned after their macroscopic counterparts. Nanotechnology will provide the ability to build materials with switchable molecular functions which could provide completely new approaches to valves, pumps, chemical separations, and detection. For example, fluid streams could be directed by controlling surface energy without the need for a predetermined architecture of physical channels. Switchable molecular membranes and the like could replace mechanical valves. By eliminating the need for complex fluidic networks and microscale components used in current approaches, a fundamentally new approach will allow greater function in much smaller, lower-power total chemical analysis systems.
A new scheme for the detection of molecular interactions based on optical readout of nanoparticle labels has been developed. Capture DNA probes were arrayed on a glass chip and incubated with nanoparticle-labeled target DNA probes, containing a complementary sequence. Binding events were monitored by optical means, using reflected and transmitted light for the detection of surface-bound nanoparticles. Control experiments exclude significant influence of nonspecific binding on the observed contrast. Scanning force microscopy revealed the distribution of nanoparticles on the chip surface.
BioForce Nanosciences has taken the technology of the microarray to the next level by creating the ''nanoarray,'' an ultraminiaturized version of the traditional microarray that can actually measure interactions between individual molecules down to resolutions of as little as 1 nm. Here 400 nanoarray spots can be placed in the same area as a traditional microarray spot. Nanoarrays are the next evolutionary step in the miniaturization of bioaffinity tests for proteins, nucleic acids, and receptor-ligand pairs. On a BioForce NanoArrayT, as many as 1500 different samples can be queried in the same area now needed for just one domain on a traditional microarray.
into each reaction center to rapidly assemble diverse multicomponent reactions without cross contamination or the need for surface linkage. This proteomics technique allowed the kinetic profiling of protease mixtures, protease-substrate interactions, and high-throughput screening reactions. From one printing run that consumes <1 nmol of each compound, large combinatorial libraries can be subjected to numerous separation-free homogeneous assays at volumes 103-104 smaller than current high-throughput methods. The rapid assembly of thousands of nanoliter reactions per slide using a small biological sample (2 mL) represents a new functional proteomics format implemented with standard micro-arraying and spot-analysis tools.
NanoChip (Nanogen, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) is a microelectronic chip format suitable for rapid single nucle-otide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and genetic dissection of complex phenotypes. In beta testing, the NanoChip system has been shown to provide accuracy equal to or better than DNA sequencing and other methods for SNP confirmation. Unlike other systems, the NanoChip system uses electronically accelerated hybridization under very low-salt conditions, potentially avoiding problems with DNA conformation and secondary structures, whereas most sequencing and primer extension technologies require high-salt conditions. The NanoChip system allows the user to array and analyze DNA on its NanoChip cartridges in user-selected formats in a single day with walkaway automation. The NanoChip system integrates advanced microelectronics and molecular biology into a platform technology with broad commercial applications in the fields of biomedical research, genomics, medical diagnostics, genetic testing, and drug discovery.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.