Frequency Features

Gene/Protein Function

Autosomal dominant Complete penetrance 1:4000

Neurofibromas; cafe-au-lait macules; learning disabilities; skeletal dysplasia NF1—chromosome 17 Neurofibromin GTPase-activating protein

Autosomal dominant Complete penetrance 1:40,000

Vestibular schwannomas; other schwannomas; meningiomas; ependymomas; cataract

NF2—chromosome 22 Merlin/schwannomin Cytoskeletal protein

Autosomal dominant Incomplete penetrance Very rare Schwannomas

Unknown Unknown

Table 1. The clinical distinction between NF1 and the others is usually relatively easy to establish: only NF1 is associated with multiple cafe-au-lait macules, neurofibromas, optic glioma, etc. Both NF2 and schwannoma-tosis are characterized by multiple schwannomas, with the vestibular schwannoma being the hallmark of NF2. Clinical diagnostic criteria for NF1 are presented in Table 2.[10] Many of the features are age dependent, so the diagnosis is often not established at first evaluation of a young child. There are several variant forms of NF that need to be considered; these are also described in Table 2.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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