NPCR Special Features


The first PCR contains external pairs of primers, whereas the second includes two primers that are internal to the first primer pair. The primers employed should be different in both reactions (Fig. 1); although there is a possibility of employing one of the first-round primers into the second reaction, designing a seminested PCR, however, sometimes results in unspecific amplifications. If during the primer design process it is not possible to choose four different conservative regions, the use of sense or antisense partially overlapping sequences is an allowed alternative. The hybridization temperatures of each pair of primers may be different, but it is convenient to be similar in order to make, if necessary, cross-primer reactions that permit to evaluate each individual primer function.

Biochemical conditions

The final biochemical conditions of both reactions should be experimentally determined individually as in one reaction PCR.


Only a small amount of the first amplification fragment (1-3 pL) is necessary to serve as template for the nested reaction.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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