Organism

The genus Salmonella belongs to the family Entero-bacteriaceae. Salmonella is a gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming bacillus, 2-3 mm by 0.4-0.6 mm in size. It is differentiated from other Enterobacteriaceae by biochemical tests. Salmonella spp. ferment glucose, maltose, and mannitol but not lactose or sucrose. Most Salmonella strains produce acid and gas by fermentation. However, some Salmonella strains have variable biochemical tests. The following exceptional characteristics are helpful in identification; S. Typhi

Table 1 Classification of the genus Salmonella

Species

Subspecies

S. enterica

S. enterica subsp. enterica S. enterica subsp. salamae S. enterica subsp. arizonae S. enterica subsp. diarizonae S. enterica subsp. houtense S. enterica subsp. indica

S. bongori does not produce gas and is ornithine-negative, S. Choleraesuis is trehalose-negative, and S. Gallina-rum-Pullorum is nonmotile.

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