Other Pathogens

Besides its extensive use for viral load determinations, bDNA signal amplification has not yet gained widespread application in other fields of diagnostic clinical microbiology. Only a few prototype assays were reported for detection and quantitation of pathogens other than HBV, HCV, and HIV, including tests for GB virus C, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Trypanosoma brucei species, which cause the human sleeping sickness, and Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague.[3,20] bDNA technology was also occasionally used to identify the mecA gene of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical specimens. The obtained results suggested that the bDNA assay enabled mecA detection directly from blood culture bottles without the need for any subcultivation and was as sensitive and specific as the PCR-based comparative method.[21]

temperature incubations are necessary, and potential diffusion of amplification products away from the target site is not a significant concern with bDNA ISH, which therefore might provide a more accurate subcellular localization of nucleic acid sequences.[23]

bDNA ISH, e.g., could detect about one or two copies of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical cancer cell lines and proved to be highly specific in discriminating cells infected with HPV type 16 from those with HPV type 18 DNA.[23] The same technique was subsequently applied to normal and HPV-infected cervical biopsy specimens and the obtained results led to the preliminary interpretation that bDNA ISH, as an adjunct to conventional histopathology, can perhaps improve future diagnostic accuracy at least in cases of HPV-mediated neoplastic disease.[24]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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