Reference Measurement Systems and Traceability Chain

In order to harmonize, standardize, and improve the quality of genetic diagnostic services the establishment of reference measurement systems is of pivotal importance. Diagnostic measurements must be accurate, precise, specific, comparable among laboratories, and traceable to the available reference measurement procedures and available reference materials of a higher order. Manufacturers are obliged to demonstrate traceablitity to a CRM according to the IVD directive 98/79/EC. Certified reference materials are reference materials qualified with a certificate stating assigned values and uncertainties (i.e., expected variability in the values), intended use, information about the matrix (the form of the material), and commutability. The three elements of reference measurement systems (RMS) are internationally accepted agreed reference measurement procedures (RMP), CRM, and reference laboratories.

The standard EN ISO 17511:2003 refers to the RMS, and it requires for measurement of quantities in biological samples: definition of the analyte with regard to the intended use of the measurement results, RMP for the selected quantity in samples, and suitable reference materials for the selected quantity, e.g., primary calibrators and secondary matrix-based calibrators that are commut-able (i.e., the range of assays in which the CRM will perform correctly).

Traceability is defined[1] as a property of the result of a measurement, or the value of a standard, whereby it can be

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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