Keratin intermediate filament (KIF) assembly initiates with the formation of a heterodimer composed of a basic keratin molecule and an acidic keratin molecule intertwining in a coiled coil parallel fashion. Keratin hetero-dimers then interact in a staggered antiparallel manner to form stable tetramers, which associate longitudinally and laterally to generate 2-nm protofilaments. Protofilaments are then assembled into protofibrils, which eventually interact to yield 10-nm KIF.

Types I and II keratin-encoding genes are clustered on 17q and 12q, respectively. Approximately 50 distinct keratin or keratin-like genes, and more than 150 keratin pseudogenes have been identified in silico in the human genome. Some of those pseudogenes are readily expressed as mRNA, thus significantly complicating the molecular diagnostics of inherited keratin disorders.[1] A number of techniques are now available to avoid keratin pseudogene amplification.[2]

The following article presents a succinct description of keratinopathies and relevant diagnostic strategies. More detailed information can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=OMIM using the OMIM numbers given in Table 1. References including specific molecular diagnostic strategies, primer lists, and poly-merase chain reaction (PCR) conditions for amplification

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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