Five to ten percent of breast cancer and 7-10% of ovarian cancer demonstrate a pattern of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hereditary syndromes with breast and/or ovarian cancer are summarized in Table 1. Mutations in the BRCA genes account for only 2-3% of all breast cancers. A single copy of the mutated gene is inherited, and mutation of the second wild-type allele of the gene, through acquired genetic events, is required for loss of function and tumorigenesis. Accumulation of additional somatic mutations in other tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes accounts for the phenotypic differences and explains the increasing age-related penetrance of tumor-igenic phenotype in HBOC syndrome. BRCA genes act as tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes. The BRCA1 gene is located on long arm chromosome 17 (17q12-21) and encodes an acid nuclear phosphoprotein. It is responsible for breast cancer in 45% of families with multiple breast cancers and up to 90% of families with both breast and ovarian cancers. The BRCA2 gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 13 (13q12-13) and accounts for breast cancer in 35% of families with multiple breast cancers. The lifetime risks for breast, ovarian, and other BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated cancers in HBOC syndrome are summarized in Table 2.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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