Overview of Comparative Genomic Hybridization

The major steps in CGH involve: 1) Preparation of karyotypically normal 46,XY metaphase spreads. Male reference chromosomes are chosen so that both the X and Y chromosomes are available as hybridization targets. 2) Isolation of high molecular weight DNA from specimen (test) and reference (normal) samples. 3) Labeling of specimen and reference DNA with different fluoro-chromes by nick translation. 4) In situ hybridization of equal amounts of labeled specimen and reference DNAs together with unlabeled Cot1-DNA to normal metaphase spreads. 5) Washing off unbound DNA. 6) Counter-staining metaphase spreads with DAPI for chromosome identification. 7) Fluorescence microscopy utilizing fluorochrome-specific filters to visualize and capture color ratio differences along the chromosomes (Fig. 1). 8) Chromosome identification by the inverted DAPI

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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