Overview of Comparative Genomic Hybridization

The major steps in CGH involve: 1) Preparation of karyotypically normal 46,XY metaphase spreads. Male reference chromosomes are chosen so that both the X and Y chromosomes are available as hybridization targets. 2) Isolation of high molecular weight DNA from specimen (test) and reference (normal) samples. 3) Labeling of specimen and reference DNA with different fluoro-chromes by nick translation. 4) In situ hybridization of equal amounts of labeled specimen and reference DNAs together with unlabeled Cot1-DNA to normal metaphase spreads. 5) Washing off unbound DNA. 6) Counter-staining metaphase spreads with DAPI for chromosome identification. 7) Fluorescence microscopy utilizing fluorochrome-specific filters to visualize and capture color ratio differences along the chromosomes (Fig. 1). 8) Chromosome identification by the inverted DAPI

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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