Overview

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used for the treatment of aerobic gram-negative—and, less commonly, gram-positive—bacterial infections. Streptomycin, the first aminoglycoside introduced in the 1940s, is still in use as firstline antituberculosis drug. Gentamycin, tobramycin, and amikacin are more commonly used in developed [1 21 countries.1 ,

The ototoxicity associated with the use of aminoglycosides was recognized soon after they became available, for which a loss of 15 dB or more at any frequency in one or both ears is a commonly used description.1-21

Aminoglycosides can cause deafness in almost all mammalian species when given in massive doses. However, individuals who experienced hearing loss following short-term aminoglycoside use at regular doses, sometimes with a family history of AID, were indicative of a genetic mechanism. It was first suggested in 1989 that the genetic defect might be in the mitochondrial DNA based on the reported pedigrees of AID.[3] It was later clearly demonstrated that the inheritance pattern was matrilineal[4] in a district of China where 167 of 763 (22%) deaf individuals had a history of aminoglycoside exposure. Three Chinese families with histories of AID and an Arab-Israeli family with maternally inherited nonsyndromic deafness (not associated with aminoglyco-side exposure) were used to discover the genetic defect in the mitochondrial DNA.[1] As a result of this effort, an

A! G transition at position 1555 of the 12S rRNA was identified.[11

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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