Pathology

Two main pathologies have been associated with V. vulnificus: wound infections and primary septicemia.1-1,11-15-1 Recently, an alarming number of human cases were reported in Japan,[16] Taiwan,[17] Singapore,[18] Chile,[19] United States,[20] New Zealand,[21] and Spain.[22] Infection occurs also in immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, snakebites were complicated when V. vulnificus was also present in the wound.[23]

The proliferative and degenerative symptoms could be indicated by the observation that V. vulnificus induces apoptosis in macrophages1-24-1 bypassing the first defense mechanisms of the host. Proinflammatory cytokines are known to be of major importance in septicemia because of this bacterium.[25] For details of other virulence factors, see the review by Strom and Paranjpye.[1]

However, metalloproteases have been well studied in connection with virulence.[26] In addition, the expression of a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was shown to be virulence-related.[27] Molecular studies have been carried out (to be developed further in another article in this volume) on a 68-kbp plasmid, which was found in virulent strains from fish.[28]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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