Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for family balancing purpose, also known as social sexing (PGD-SS), is currently offered by a couple of PGD centers worldwide and 78 cycles were reported by May 2001. This is a highly controversial application and a matter of contention. The vast majority of PGD centers registered with the ESHRE PGD Consortium does not offer PGD-SS.
For a number of hematological diseases, transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells is the only curative treatment. Some parents with an affected child may contemplate PGD in the hope of conceiving an HLA-identical donor sibling. This issue is also much debated. However, if the child to-be is at risk of having the same disease and a specific PGD analysis is performed along with the HLA analysis, the added benefits of possibly saving the life of the sibling have been generally considered to outweigh the disadvantages.1-10-1 A detailed account of the ethical issues of PGD is outside the scope of this chapter and these are discussed elsewhere.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.