Photodiodes

Photodiodes are electrical components that convert incident light to electric current. The photodiode consists of a positive electrode, a P-layer, a neutral layer, and an N-layer followed by a negative electrode. When light hits the P-layer, electrons in its crystal structure are excited and, in an electric field, accelerate toward the N-layer, creating a current. Photodiodes are cheap; there may be several diodes in a single instrument. Photodiodes can also be wavelength-discriminative; different diodes are used for different wavelengths.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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