Prediction Of Disease Risk Using Cd34 Cells From Patients With

The clinical diagnosis of typical MDS according to FAB/ WHO[7,8] criteria is often straightforward and presents no difficulty. Although the diagnosis may be suspected based on the history and the peripheral blood findings, morphological examination of the bone marrow and cytogenetics are essential to establish the final diagnosis and to estimate the prognosis of the disease. The latter may be difficult and requires additional genetic information, which can hopefully be obtained from global gene expression data in MDS.

We and others[9,10] have shown that characterizing the cellular and molecular defects of clinical samples from patients with MDS by global gene expression analysis requires the analysis of a freshly isolated and homogenous population of bone marrow cells. Because expression of CD34 is a marker for hematopoietic stem cells, experiments to detect abnormalities have focused on CD34+ cells from patients with MDS. The first description of MDS-specific genes that were found to be overexpressed in CD34+ cells from patients with MDS compared with leukemic cells from patients with AML was published in 2001.[10] Twenty genes [including deltalike 1 (DLK1), a secreted protein that has epidermal growth factor motifs] were selected by direct comparison of expression data in MDS vs. AML. By hierarchical cluster analysis, it could be demonstrated that the selected genes can be used to clearly distinguish the MDS samples from the AML samples.

We have used two independent data sets created from a total of 19 patients with MDS to predict the risk groups of those patients at the time of initial diagnosis. Using the first data set (11 patients, samples 275-286; Fig. 2a), we identified by class membership prediction 11 genes whose expression can be used to differentiate with high accuracy between low-risk MDS, high-risk MDS, and normal individuals (samples 271-274; Fig. 2a).

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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