Prenatal diagnosis may be carried out for couples of whom both members are p-thalassemia carriers and for whom p-globin gene mutations have been identified by DNA analysis. Molecular genetic testing can be performed either on fetal DNA extracted from cells obtained by chorionic villi sampling (CVS) at about 10-12 weeks gestation or by amniocentesis at 14-18 weeks gestation. Diagnosis by DNA analysis of polar bodies and preim-plantation diagnosis by analysis of cleavage embryo biopsy are also possible. Prenatal diagnosis by analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood is not yet available. However, analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma for the presence of the father's mutation may lead to prenatal exclusion of homozygous p-thalassemia.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.