Problem Nonspecific Products

Try higher annealing temperatures in increments of 5°C.

Reduce the annealing time down to 8 sec in 2-sec decrements.

Reduce time of the elongation step.

Decrease the enzyme amount per reaction in decrements of 0.2 U.

Reduce the amount of template DNA.

Reduce the number of cycles by steps of two.

Add 2-5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to the PCR reaction.

Design new (maybe longer) primers.

15 20 25 30 35 40

Cycle Numbers

Fig. 4 Quantitative dynamics in PCR amplicon generation. After a certain number of PCR cycles, detectable amplicon amounts are generated (with the target amounts used here, after about 18 and 24 cycles, respectively). These amounts are amplified logarithmically for only about five subsequent PCR cycles, and, finally, a static plateau phase is reached (at about 26 and 32 cycles, respectively). (View this art in color at www.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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