Redundancy in Signaling Pathways

Cancer is an example of a genetically based disease process, but on a functional level, it is a proteomic disease. This genetic alteration is translated into a defective or altered protein that guides the survival of the diseased cell population. The genetic defect of the cancer cell selectively offers a survival advantage for the cell by altering cellular signaling pathways, possibly driving tumor invasion and metastasis.[17,19,21] As expected, these pathways are fluid and dynamic, adapting to the changing microenvironment.[15,22-26] Cellular survival mechanisms include redundancy and collateral signaling pathways. Recurrent tumors are prime examples of a completely natural and normal function of the cell's capacity to adjust to its microenvironment. The need for individual molecular profiling quickly becomes apparent in this context of redundancy and dynamic signaling pathways.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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