References

1. World Health Organization. Onchocerciasis and Its Control. WHO Tech. Rep.#852, 1995.

2. Shah, J.S.; Karam, M.; Piessens, W.F.; Wirth, D.F. Characterization of an Onchocerca-specific DNA clone from Onchocerca volvulus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1987, 37, 376-384.

3. Harnett, W.; Chambers, A.E.; Renz, A.; Parkhouse, R.M.E. An oligonucleotide probe specific for Onchocerca volvulus. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 1989, 35, 119-126.

4. Meredith, S.E.O.; Unnasch, T.R.; Karam, M.; Piessens, W.F.; Wirth, D.F. Cloning and characterization of an Onchocerca volvulus specific DNA sequence. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 1989, 36, 1-10.

5. Erttmann, K.D.; Unnasch, T.R.; Greene, B.M.; Albiez, E.J.; Boateng, J.; Denke, A.M.; Ferraroni, J.J.; Karam, M.; Schulz-Key, H.; Williams, P.N. A DNA sequence specific for forest form Onchocerca volvulus. Nature 1987, 327, 415-417.

6. Zimmerman, P.A.; Toe, L.; Unnasch, T.R. Design of Onchocerca DNA probes based upon analysis of a repeated sequence family. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 1993, 58, 259269.

7. Meredith, S.E.O.; Lando, G.; Gbakima, A.A.; Zimmerman,

P.A.; Unnasch, T.R. Onchocerca volvulus: Application of 17 the polymerase chain reaction to identification and strain differentiation of the parasite. Exp. Parasitol. 1991, 73, 335-344.

8. Merriweather, A.; Unnasch, T.R. Onchocerca volvulus: Development of a species specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Exp. Parasitol. 1996, 83, 164-166. 18.

9. Zimmerman, P.A.; Guderian, R.H.; Aruajo, E.; Elson, L.; Phadke, P.; Kubofcik, J.; Nutman, T.B. Polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of Onchocerca volvulus infection: Improved detection of patients with onchocerciasis. J. Infect. Dis. 1994,169, 686-689.

10. Fischer, P.; Rubaale, T.; Meredith, S.E.; Buttner, D.W. 19. Sensitivity of a polymerase chain reaction-based assay to detect Onchocerca volvulus DNA in skin biopsies. Para-sitol. Res. 1996, 82, 395 -401.

11. Vincent, J.A.; Lustigman, S.; Zhang, S.; Weil, G.J. A comparison of newer tests for the diagnosis of oncho-cerciasis. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 2000, 94, 253-258. 20.

12. Nutman, T.B.; Zimmerman, P.A.; Kubofcik, J.; Kostyu, D.D. A universally applicable diagnostic approach to filarial and other infections. Parasitol. Today 1994, 10, 239-243.

13. Pischke, S.; Buttner, D.W.; Liebau, E.; Fischer, P. An 21. internal control for the detection of Onchocerca volvulus

DNA by PCR-ELISA and rapid detection of specific PCR products by DNA detection test strips. Trop. Med. Int. Health 2002, 7, 526-531. 22.

14. Zhang, S.; Li, B.W.; Weil, G.J. Paper chromatography hybridization: A rapid method for detection of Oncho-cerca volvulus DNA amplified by PCR. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2000, 63, 85 - 89.

15. Toe, L.; Boatin, B.A.; Adjami, A.; Back, C.; Merriweather, 23. A.; Unnasch, T.R. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus infection by 0-150 polymerase chain reaction analysis of skin scratches. J. Infect. Dis. 1998, 178, 282-285.

16. Katholi, C.R.; Toe, L.; Merriweather, A.; Unnasch, T.R. 24. Determining the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection in vector populations by PCR screening of pools of black flies. J. Infect. Dis. 1995, 172, 1414-1417.

Yameogo, L.; Toe, L.; Hougard, J.-M.; Boatin, B.A.; Unnasch, T.R. Pool screen PCR for estimating the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection in Simulium damnosum sensu lato: Results of a field trial in an area subject to successful vector control. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1999, 60, 124-128.

Rodriguez-Perez, M.A.; Danis-Lozano, R.; Rodriguez, M.H.; Unnasch, T.R.; Bradley, J.E. Detection of Oncho-cerca volvulus infection in Simulium ochraceum sensu lato: Comparison of a PCR assay and fly dissection in a Mexican hypoendemic community. Parasitology 1999, 119, 613-619.

Guevara, A.G.; Vieira, J.C.; Lilley, B.G.; Lopez, A.; Vieira, N.; Rumbea, J.; Collins, R.; Unnasch, T.R. Entomological evaluation by pool screen polymerase chain reaction of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Ecuador following mass mectizan distribution. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2003, 68, 222-227.

Zimmerman, P.A.; Dadzie, K.Y.; DeSole, G.; Remme, J.; Alley, E.S.; Unnasch, T.R. Onchocerca volvulus DNA probe classification correlates with epidemiolog-ical patterns of blindness. J. Infect. Dis. 1992, 165, 964-968.

Fischer, P.; Bamuhiiga, J.; Kilian, A.H.; Buttner, D.W. Strain differentiation of Onchocerca volvulus from Uganda using DNA probes. Parasitology 1996, 112, 401-408.

Zimmerman, P.A.; Katholi, C.R.; Wooten, M.C.; Lang-Unnasch, N.; Unnasch, T.R. Recent evolutionary history of American Onchocerca volvulus, based on analysis of a tandemly repeated DNA sequence family. Mol. Biol. Evol. 1994, 11, 384-392.

Higazi, T.B.; Katholi, C.R.; Mahmoud, B.M.; Baraka, O.Z.; Mukhtar, M.M.; Al Qubati, Y.; Unnasch, T.R. Onchocerca volvulus: Genetic diversity of parasite isolates from Sudan. Exp. Parasitol. 2001, 97, 24-34. Nutman, T.B.; Parredes, W.; Kubofcik, J.; Guderian, R.H. Polymerase chain reaction-based assessment after macro-filaricidal therapy in Onchocerca volvulus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 1996, 173, 773 - 776.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment