1. Ehlen, T.; Dubeau, L. Detection of ras point mutations by polymerase chain reaction using mutation-specific, ino-sine-containing oligonucleotide primers. Biochem. Bio-phys. Res. Commun. 1989, 160 (2), 441-447.

2. Newton, C.R.; Graham, A.; Heptinstall, L.E.; Powell, S.J.; Summers, C.; Kalsheker, N.; Smith, J.C.; Markham, A.F. Analysis of any point mutation in DNA: The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). Nucleic Acids Res. 1989, 17 (7), 2503-2516.

3. Wu, D.Y.; Ugozzoli, L.; Pal, B.K.; Wallace, R.B. Allele-

specific enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic DNA for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1989, 86 (8), 2757-2760. ^

4. Okayama, H.; Curiel, D.T.; Brantly, M.L.; Holmes, M.D.; Crystal, R.G. Rapid, nonradioactive detection of mutations in the human genome by allele-specific amplification. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1989, 114 (2), 105-113.

5. Nichols, W.C.; Liepnieks, J.J.; McKusick, V.A.; Benson, M.D. Direct sequencing of the gene for Maryland/German familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type II and genotyp-ing by allele-specific enzymatic amplification. Genomics 1989, 5 (3), 535-540.

6. Sommer, S.S.; Cassady, J.D.; Sobell, J.L.; Bottema, C.D. A novel method for detecting point mutations or polymorphisms and its application to population screening for carriers of phenylketonuria. Mayo Clin. Proc. 1989, 64 (11), 1361-1372.

7. Tindall, K.R.; Kunkel, T.A. Fidelity of DNA synthesis by the Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase. Biochemistry 1988, 27 (16), 6008-6013.

8. Li, H.; Cui, X.; Arnheim, N. Direct electrophoretic detection of the allelic state of single DNA molecules in human sperm by using the polymerase chain reaction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1990, 87 (12), 4580-4584.

9. Dutton, C.; Sommer, S.S. Simultaneous detection of multiple single-base alleles at a polymorphic site. Biotechniques 1991, 11 (6), 700-702.

10. Rust, S.; Funke, H.; Assmann, G. Mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR): A highly specific one step procedure for easy mutation detection. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993, 21 (16), 3623-3629.

11. Liu, Q.; Thorland, E.C.; Heit, J.A.; Sommer, S.S. Overlapping PCR for bidirectional PCR amplification of specific alleles: A rapid one-tube method for simultaneously differentiating homozygotes and heterozygotes. Genome Res. 1997, 7 (4), 389-398.

12. Hamajima, N.; Saito, T.; Matsuo, K.; Kozaki, K.; Takahashi, T.; Tajima, K. Polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers for polymorphism genotyping. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 2000, 91 (9), 865-868.

13. Ye, S.; Dhillon, S.; Ke, X.; Collins, A.R.; Day, I.N. An efficient procedure for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001, 29 (17), e88-e96.

14. Schuster, H.; Rauh, G.; Muller, S.; Keller, C.; Wolfram, G.; Zollner, N. Allele-specific and asymmetric polymerase chain reaction amplification in combination: A one step polymerase chain reaction protocol for rapid diagnosis of familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. Anal. Biochem. 1992, 204 (1), 22-25.

15. Orou, A.; Fechner, B.; Utermann, G.; Menzel, H.J. Allele-specific competitive blocker PCR: A one-step method with applicability to pool screening. Hum. Mutat. 1995, 6 (2), 163-169.

16. Abravaya, K.; Carrino, J.J.; Muldoon, S.; Lee, H.H. Detection of point mutations with a modified ligase chain reaction (Gap-LCR). Nucleic Acids Res. 1995, 23 (4), 675-682.

Vamvakopoulos, J.E. Multiplex universal genotyping using a modified ARMS-PCR protocol. BioTechniques 2002, 33 (5), 1110-1112.

Huber, M.; Losert, D.; Hiller, R.; Harwanegg, C.; Mueller, M.W.; Schmidt, W.M. Detection of single base alterations in genomic DNA by solid phase polymerase chain reaction on oligonucleotide microarrays. Anal. Biochem. 2001, 299 (1), 24-30.

Huber, M.; Mundlein, A.; Dornstauder, E.; Schneeberger, C.; Tempfer, C.B.; Mueller, M.W.; Schmidt, W.M. Accessing single nucleotide polymorphisms in genomic DNA by direct multiplex polymerase chain reaction amplification on oligonucleotide microarrays. Anal. Bio-chem. 2002, 303 (1), 25-33.

Kwok, S.; Kellogg, D.E.; McKinney, N.; Spasic, D.; Goda, L.; Levenson, C.; Sninsky, J.J. Effects of primer-template mismatches on the polymerase chain reaction: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 model studies. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990, 18 (4), 999-1005. Mendelman, L.V.; Petruska, J.; Goodman, M.F. Base mispair extension kinetics: Comparison of DNA polymer-ase alpha and reverse transcriptase. J. Biol. Chem. 1990, 265 (4), 2338-2346.

Huang, M.M.; Arnheim, N.; Goodman, M.F. Extension of base mispairs by Taq DNA polymerase: Implications for single nucleotide discrimination in PCR. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992, 20 (17), 4567-4573.

Ayyadevara, S.; Thaden, J.J.; Shmookler Reis, R.J. Discrimination of primer 3'-nucleotide mismatch by Taq DNA polymerase during polymerase chain reaction. Anal. Biochem. 2000, 284 (1), 11-18.

Waterfall, C.M.; Eisenthal, R.; Cobb, B.D. Kinetic characterisation of primer mismatches in allele-specific PCR: A quantitative assessment. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002, 299 (5), 715-722. Sarkar, G.; Cassady, J.; Bottema, C.D.; Sommer, S.S. Characterization of polymerase chain reaction amplification of specific alleles. Anal. Biochem. 1990, 186 (1), 6468.

Wittwer, C.T.; Marshall, B.C.; Reed, G.H.; Cherry, J.L. Rapid cycle allele-specific amplification: Studies with the cystic fibrosis delta F508 locus. Clin. Chem. 1993, 39 (5), 804-809.

Birikh, K.R.; Plutalov, O.V.; Schwartz, E.I.; Devi, P.S.; Berlin, Y.A. A modified approach to identification of the sickle cell anemia mutation by means of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Hum. Mutat. 1992, 1 (5), 417419.

Guo, Z.; Liu, Q.; Smith, L.M. Enhanced discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms by artificial mismatch hybridization. Nat. Biotechnol. 1997, 15 (4), 331335.

Latorra, D.; Campbell, K.; Wolter, A.; Hurley, J.M. Enhanced allele-specific PCR discrimination in SNP genotyping using 3' locked nucleic acid (LNA) primers. Hum. Mutat. 2003, 22 (1), 79-85. Imyanitov, E.N.; Buslov, K.G.; Suspitsin, E.N.; Kuligina, ESh; Belogubova, E.V.; Grigoriev, M.Y.; Togo, A.V.;

Hanson, K.P Improved reliability of allele-specific PCR. BioTechniques 2002, 33 (3), 484-488.

31. Brownie, J.; Shawcross, S.; Theaker, J.; Whitcombe, D.; Ferrie, R.; Newton, C.; Little, S. The elimination of primer-dimer accumulation in PCR. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997, 25 (16), 3235-3241.

32. Bartlett, S.; Straub, J.; Tonks, S.; Wells, R.S.; Bodmer, J.G.; Bodmer, W.F. Alkaline-mediated differential interaction (AMDI): A simple automatable single-nucleotide polymorphism assay. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2001, 98 (5), 2694-2697.

33. Prior, T.W.; Highsmith, W.E., Jr.; Friedman, K.J.; Perry, T.R.; Scheuerbrandt, G.; Silverman, L.M. A model for molecular screening of newborns: Simultaneous detection of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophies and cystic fibrosis. Clin. Chem. 1990, 36 (10), 1756-1759.

34. Wagner, M.; Schloesser, M.; Reiss, J. Direct gene diagnosis of cystic fibrosis by allele-specific polymerase chain reactions. Mol. Biol. Med. 1990, 7 (4), 359-364.

35. Sorenson, G.D.; Pribish, D.M.; Valone, F.H.; Memoli, V.A.; Bzik, D.J.; Yao, S.L. Soluble normal and mutated DNA sequences from single-copy genes in human blood. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 1994, 3 (1), 67-71.

36. Roth, M.S.; Terry, V.H. Application of the polymerase chain reaction for detection of minimal residual disease of hematologic malignancies. Henry Ford Hosp. Med. J. 1991, 39 (2), 112-116.

37. Pfitzner, T.; Reiser, M.; Barth, S.; Borchmann, P.; Schulz, H.; Schinkothe, T.; Oberhauser, F.; Wessels, J.; Tur, M.; Diehl, V.; Engert, A. Quantitative molecular monitoring of residual tumor cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ann. Hematol. 2002, 81 (5), 258-266.

38. Fugger, L.; Morling, N.; Ryder, L.P.; Odum, N.; Svejgaard, A. Technical aspects of typing for HLA-DP alleles using allele-specific DNA in vitro amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes: Detection of single base mismatches. J. Immunol. Methods 1990, 129 (2), 175-185.

39. Olerup, O.; Zetterquist, H. HLA-DR typing by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) in 2 hours: An alternative to serological DR typing in clinical practice including donor-recipient matching in cadaveric transplantation. Tissue Antigens 1992, 39 (5), 225-235.

40. Zetterquist, H.; Bengtsson, M.; Backstrom, G.; Egle-Jansson, I.; Ekdahl, A.M.; Grunnet, N.; Gustafsson, I.; Knutsen, I.; Kuhle, A.; Rydberg, L.; Spurkland, A.; Steffensen, R.; Storgards, M.; Szojmer, E.; Soderholm, G.; Thuresson, B.; Turesson, H.; Olerup, O. Report from the HLA class II typing by PCR-SSP multicentre study. Eur. J. Immunogenet. 1997, 24 (3), 191-199.

41. Bunce, M.; Barnardo, M.C.; Welsh, K.I. The PCR-SSP Manager computer program: A tool for maintaining sequence alignments and automatically updating the specificities of PCR-SSP primers and primer mixes. Tissue Antigens 1998, 52 (2), 158-174.

42. Garavito, G.; Klein, D.; Denis, M.; Pugliese, A.; Ricordi,

C.; Pastori, R.L. Real-time sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction amplification of HLA class II alleles: A novel approach to analyze microchimerism. Transplantation 2002, 73 (5), 822-825.

43. Maas, F.; Schaap, N.; Kolen, S.; Zoetbrood, A.; Buno, I.; Dolstra, H.; de Witte, T.; Schattenberg, A.; van de Wiel-van Kemenade, E. Quantification of donor and recipient hemopoietic cells by real-time PCR of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Leukemia 2003, 17 (3), 621-629.

44. de Haas, M.; Koene, H.R.; Kleijer, M.; de Vries, E.; Simsek, S.; van Tol, M.J.; Roos, D.; von dem Borne, A.E. A triallelic Fc gamma receptor type IIIA polymorphism influences the binding of human IgG by NK cell Fc gamma Rllla. J. Immunol. 1996, 156 (8), 3948-3955.

45. Wilhelm, J.; Reuter, H.; Tews, B.; Pingoud, A.; Hahn, M. Detection and quantification of insertion/deletion variations by allele-specific real-time PCR: Application for genotyping and chimerism analysis. Biol. Chem. 2002, 383 (9), 1423-1433.

46. Sarkar, G.; Sommer, S.S. Haplotyping by double PCR amplification of specific alleles. BioTechniques 1991, 10 (4), 436-440.

47. Lo, Y.M.; Patel, P.; Newton, C.R.; Markham, A.F.; Fleming, K.A.; Wainscoat, J.S. Direct haplotype determination by double ARMS: Specificity, sensitivity and genetic applications. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991, 19 (13), 3561-3567.

48. Germer, S.; Holland, M.J.; Higuchi, R. High-throughput SNP allele-frequency determination in pooled DNA samples by kinetic PCR. Genome Res. 2000, 10 (2), 258-266.

49. Inbar, E.; Yakir, B.; Darvasi, A. An efficient haplotyping method with DNA pools. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002, 30 (15), e76.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment